Polyphenols are compounds with more than one phenol group. They are found ubiquitously in nature. According to Petti and Scully (2009) the function of these plant molecules is to protect the plants against pathogenic microorganisms including predatory insects.
The most important Polyphenols classes are phenolic acids, which include polymeric structures, such as hydrolyzable tannins, lignans, stilbenes, and flavonoids. Flavonoids include flavonols (example:quercetin and kaempferol), flavones, isoflavones, flavanones, anthocyanidins, flavanols (catechins—monomers and proanthocyanidins—polymers, known as condensed tannins)
Havsteen (2002); Dabbah et al. (1970) found that in vitro, polyphenols have been shown to interfere with Candida albicans in several ways.
Flavonoids are hydroxylated phenolic substance known to be synthesized by plants in response to microbial infection and have been found in vitro to be effective antimicrobial substances against a wide array of microorganisms. Marjorie, (1999) reported that their activity is probably due to their ability to complex with extracellular and soluble proteins and to complex with bacterial cell walls.
According to many scientific studies the bioflavonoids and polyphenols extracted from citrus fruits allowed a high antimicrobial properties against foodborne pathogens such as Gram positive or negative bacteria and yeasts and molds. It's important to note that BIO-POLY exhibited a significant antimicrobial effect as reported by many researches.
Flavonoids such as quercetin, apigenin, kaempferol, galangin and genistein were
reported to possess potent antibacterial activity (Basile et al., 1999; Friedman, 2007; Ohemeng et al., 1993; Rauha et al., 2000).
Geoghegan et al. (2010) found that Quercetin possesses significant antimicrobial properties on periodontal pathogenes in vitro. Indeed the minimum inhibitory concentration were 1000 and 125 ppm against Actinobacillus Actinomycetemcomitans and Porphyromonas gingivalis. According to Cushnie and Lamb (2005) Quercetin have several mode of action such as inhibition of nucleic acid synthesis, inhibition of energy metabolism and inhibition of cytoplasmic membrane function.
Anti-biofilm and anti-communication effect of flavonoids
Vikram et al. (2010) reported that:
Naringenin, kaempferol, quercetin and apigenin interfere on the cell-cell communication system.
Quercetin and kaempferol effect significantly the growth of Vibrio harveyi and E. coli O157:H7 at 100 µg/ ml and induce the Inhibition of biofilm formation in Vibrio harveyi and Escherichia coli O157:H7
Quercetin, naringenin and sinensetin allowed a strong inhibition of biofilm formation.
Vikram et al. (2010) found that naringenin attenuated Salmonella Typhimurium virulence and cell motility.
Hesperidin and Hesperetin antimicrobial activity
According to Iranshahi et al. (2015) polyphenols play an important role in the resistance against various microbial pathogens.
Hesperidin (Hsd), hesperetin (Hst), are two flavonoids from citrus species that exhibit antimicrobial properties.
As an example Hsd and ten other flavonoids isolated from citrus species showed a range of inhibitory effects on food fungal contaminants, including Aspergillus parasiticus, Aspergillus flavus, Fusarium semitectum and Penicillium expansum.
Krolicki and Lamer-Zarawska, (1984) reported that antifungal activity of hesperidin was observed at a dose ranging from 1 to 10 µg, against Botrytis cinerea, Trichoderma glaucum and Aspergillus fumigatus.
In a study involving the investigation of anti-Helicobacter pylori (HP) activity, in vitro, of some flavonoids and their metabolites, hesperetin and other flavonoids were found to inhibit the growth of HP (Bae et al., 1999).
Antimicrobial effect of Hibiscus extract
The antibacterial activity of Hibiscus sabdariffa extracts can be attributed to the action of the phytochemical compounds it contains (Babayi et al., 2004).
Olaleye (2007) reported that aqueous-methanolic extract of Hibiscus sabdariffa calyces have been found to exhibit antibacterial activities against Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus stearothemophilus, Micrococcus luteus, Serratia mascences, Clostridium sporogenes, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumonae, Bacillus cereus and Pseudomonas fluorescence.
Mounnissamy et al. (2002) reported that the results of antibacterial activity of gossypetin isolated from Hibiscus sabdariffa revealed that the activity may be due to polyphenolic nature of the flavonoid gossypetin . In addition according to Walsh et al. (2003) the mechanism of action may be by inhibition of various cellular processes, followed by an increase in plasma membrane permeability and finally ion leakage from the bacterial cells.
Liu et al. (2005) reported that the aqueous extract of Hibiscus Sabdariffa could inhibit several nosocomial infectious bacteria such as methicillin-resistant S. aureus and Klebsiella pneumonia.
On the other hand, the protocatechuic acid, a polyphenol which is containing a 3,4-dihydroxy substructure, is a compound that naturally occurs in roselle calyx. Several in vitro studies have indicated that this compound can inhibit the growth of E. coli and fungi (Fernandez et al., 1996; Aziz et al., 1998).
A. Vikram, Palmy R. Jesudhasan, G.K. Jayaprakasha, Suresh D. Pillai, Arul Jayaraman, Bhimanagouda S. Patil (2011). Citrus flavonoid represses Salmonella pathogenicity island 1 and motility in S. Typhimurium LT2. International Journal of Food Microbiology; 145:28–36.
A. Vikram, G.K. Jayaprakasha, P.R. Jesudhasan, S.D. Pillai and B.S. Patil (2010). Suppression of bacterial cell–cell signalling, biofilm formation and type III secretion system by citrus flavonoids Journal of Applied Microbiology, 109(2):515-27. http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1365-2672.2010.04677.x/full
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